Catchment News

Floodplains: a natural system to preserve and restore

The preservation and restoration of Europe’s largely degraded floodplains, must be better prioritised according to European Environment Agency report ‘Floodplains: a natural system to preserve and restore’.

The report says floodplains have a key role to play in improving biodiversity, water, and climate change mitigation and adaptation. The report points to studies that show that up to 90 % of floodplains have been environmentally degraded as a result of structural flood protection, river straightening, disconnection of floodplain wetlands, agricultural land use and urbanisation over the past two centuries.

A more ecosystem-based approach to the management of floodplains would help to conserve and restore biodiversity and reduce chemical and nutrient pollution in rivers, lakes and wetlands, and increase water retention according to the EEA report ‘Floodplains: a natural system to preserve and restore.’ Such an approach would recognise the multiple functions floodplains play.

Natural, undisturbed floodplains are under increased pressure from human development, putting at risk the unique environmental roles they play during flood cycles. The report points to studies that show that up to 90 % of floodplains have been environmentally degraded as a result of structural flood protection, river straightening, disconnection of floodplain wetlands, agricultural land use and urbanisation over the past two centuries.

This degradation has put floodplains in a poor position to adequately provide important ecosystem services that could otherwise handle the increased risk of flooding due to climate change, as well as improve water and biodiversity status. While historical changes have supported economic growth and flood protection, they have had serious environmental consequences. Urban and agricultural development of floodplains together with structural flood protection have contributed greatly to disconnecting rivers from their floodplains, reducing their critical roles in flood and drought mitigation, as habitats, and in water quality protection. These changes have also made today’s floods more damaging.

Floods remain one of the most costly natural disasters. The report highlights that floodplain restoration — focused on nature based solutions and an ecosystem management approach — has the potential to greatly increase the role these areas can play in achieving positive environmental benefits, while also reducing the negative impacts of floods. Further, floodplains that are maintained in their natural condition would support objectives under existing European Union legislation, including the Water FrameworkFloodsBirds and Habitats Directives. Restoring and preserving floodplains can also support the objectives of the European Green Deal, including climate change, tackling biodiversity loss and eliminating pollution.

Background

Floodplains cover 7 % of Europe’s total area and up to 30 % of protected Natura2000 sites. While they are home to multiple protected species and habitats, they are also home to 12 % of Europe’s population and many of Europe’s cities. For example, more than 25 % of the population in Liechtenstein, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Netherlands and Slovakia live in floodplain areas. Important ecosystem services they provide include natural water retention, carbon sequestration, water purification, habitats and biodiversity and recreation. In degraded floodplains, the quality of these services is reduced. Presently only 17% of Europe’s protected habitats associated with floodplains achieve good conservation station, and 40% of Europe’s water bodies achieve good ecological status.  Enhancing the ecosystem services provided by floodplains could improve these results.

Learn more:

European Environment Agency report: Floodplains: a natural system to preserve and restore

European Environment Agency floodplain statistics viewer

Who is involved?

Quite simply, everyone in Ireland has a role to play. This can be from something as simple as making sure you don’t pollute your local stream, or a local community working together to establish a Rivers Trust to enhance the rivers and lakes in their area, to a Government Department or Agency helping a Minister implement a new policy to help protect and enhance all our waterbodies.

This website has been developed and is maintained by the Environmental Protection Agency, and is a collaboration between the Department of Housing, Planning and Local Government, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Local Authority Waters and Communities Office.

LAWCO

Local Authority Waters Programme

The Local Authority Waters Programme coordinates the efforts of local authorities and other public bodies in the implementation of the River Basin Management Plan, and supports local community and stakeholder involvement in managing our natural waters, for everyone’s benefit.

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

The EPA is responsible for coordinating the monitoring, assessment and reporting on the status of our 4,829 water bodies, looking at trends and changes, determining which waterbodies are at risk and what could be causing this, and drafting environmental objectives and measures for each.

DECLG

Department of Housing, Planning and Local Government

The Department is responsible for making sure that the right policies, regulations and resources are in place to implement the Water Framework Directive, and developing a River Basin Management Plan and Programme of Measures that will be implemented after public consultation and sign off by the Minister.